The deiodinases activate or inactivate thyroid hormone, and their importance in thyroid hormone homeostasis has become increasingly clear with the availability of deiodinase-deficient animals. At the same time, heightened interest in the field has been generated following the discovery that the type 2 deiodinase can be an important component in both the Hedgehog signaling pathway and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1-mediated (GPBAR1-mediated) signaling cascade. The discovery of these new roles for the deiodinases indicates that tissue-specific deiodination plays a much broader role than once thought, extending into the realms of developmental biology and metabolism.

Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action.

Antonio C. Bianco and Brian W. Kim. J Clin Invest. 2006 Oct; 116(10): 2571-9.

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