07.08.2019 | 9:39 AM
Paradigms of Dynamic Control of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. PMID 31033998

Thyroid hormone (TH) molecules enter cells via membrane transporters and, depending on the cell type, can be activated (i.e., T4 to T3 conversion) or inactivated (i.e., T3 to 3,3′-diiodo-l-thyronine or T4 to reverse T3 conversion). These reactions are catalyzed by the deiodinases. The biologically active hormone, T3, eventually binds to intracellular TH receptors (TRs), TRα […]

29.04.2018 | 10:48 PM
Hypothyroidism. PMID: 28336049

Hypothyroidism is a common condition of thyroid hormone deficiency, which is readily diagnosed and managed but potentially fatal in severe cases if untreated. The definition of hypothyroidism is based on statistical reference ranges of the relevant biochemical parameters and is increasingly a matter of debate. Clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism range from life-threatening to no signs or symptoms. The […]

13.01.2016 | 10:53 AM
The history and future of treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID: 26747302

Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than a century to treat hypothyroidism. Natural thyroid preparations (thyroid extract, desiccated thyroid, or thyroglobulin), which con- tain both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), were the first pharmacologic treatments available and dominated the market for the better part of the 20th century. Dosages were adjusted to resolve […]

09.10.2015 | 12:00 PM
New insights into LT4 monotherapy for hypothyroidism. PMID: 26362364

Thyroid hormone replacement has been the mainstay of treatments for hypothyroidism since the 19th century. Animal thyroid preparations, which contain thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), were the first pharmacotherapies, and synthetic agents— eg, levothyroxine (also known as LT4)—are the current standard of care.1 Chemical composition of hormone replacement therapy is important in view of the […]

09.10.2015 | 11:31 AM
Scope and limitations of iodothyronine deiodinases in hypothyroidism. PMID: 26416219

The coordinated expression and activity of the iodothyronine deiodinases regulate thyroid hormone levels in hypothyroidism. Once heralded as the pathway underpinning adequate thyroid‐hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine, the role of these enzymes has come into question as they have been implicated in both an inability to normalize serum levels of tri‐iodothyronine (T3) and the incomplete […]

03.07.2014 | 9:45 AM
Defending plasma T3 is a biological priority. PMID: 25040645

Triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone is produced predominantly outside the thyroid parenchyma secondary to peripheral tissue deiodination of thyroxine (T4), with less than 20% being secreted directly from the thyroid. In healthy individuals, plasma T3 is regulated by the negative feedback loop of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and by homeostatic changes in deiodinase […]

20.06.2014 | 11:35 AM
Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis. PMID: 24697152

The thyroid hormone (TH) plays a significant rolein diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. TH signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the TH exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the TH receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic […]

24.10.2013 | 8:45 PM
Thyroid hormone, brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis. PMID: 24622373

The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has become increasingly well defined as a result of functional imaging studies of thermogenically active BAT. Findings from these studies have created a surge of scientific interest in BAT, because it represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity—a condition with profound health consequences and few successful […]

10.03.2012 | 10:00 AM
Deiodinases are expressed in cancer cells and tissues. PMID: 22675319

Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A […]

09.11.2011 | 10:52 AM
Epicardial adipose tissue: emerging physiological, pathophysiological and clinical features. PMID: 21852149

Epicardial adipose tissue is an unusual visceral fat depot with anatomical and functional contiguity to the myo- cardium and coronary arteries. Under physiological con- ditions, epicardial adipose tissue displays biochemical, mechanical and thermogenic cardioprotective proper- ties. Under pathological circumstances, epicardial fat can locally affect the heart and coronary arteries through vasocrine or paracrine secretion of […]